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IPA Factsheet - Lake District
Site code
CountryUnited Kingdom
Administrative regionNorth West (Cumberland, Westmorland)
Central co-ordinates54o 40' N / 3o 4' W map
Area5474
Altitude215 - 500
 

 Site Description The Lake District is characterised by high fells, woodlands and open water though includes a great number of important habitats. A number of species are found at the northern most limit in the British Isles and due to the moist humid conditions, bryophyte and lichen diversity of the oceanic woodlands is high.

 Botanical Significance IPA noted for: Bryophyte, Lichen, desmids, habitat and vascular plant assemblages. High fells: The high fells in particular are important for their wet heath, blanket bogs, dry heaths, alpine and boreal heaths, upland acid heaths (which support Juniperus communis), siliceous alpine and boreal grasslands, and areas of disturbed ground (on some of the summits). These areas support woolly fringe-moss Racomitrium lanuginosum, stiff sedge Carex bigelowii, fir clubmoss Huperzia selago and the lichens Cladonia uncialis, C. coccifera, C. squamosa, C. subcervicornis, Cornicularia aculeata and Cetraria islandica. Dwarf willow Salix herbacea, R. lanuginosum and alpine clubmoss Diphasiastrum alpinum can be locally abundant, the latter particularly where there is late snow-lie. A number of rare arctic-alpine species are present in areas of moist, basic soils that support species-rich tall herb vegetation; mainly found in Helvellyn and Fairfield (probably one of the most important areas in England for calcareous montane flora found on the extensive cliff ledges), Honister Crag, Scafell Pikes, Pillar and Ennerdale Fells and Wasdale Screes, with scattered species rich ledges elsewhere. A number of rare arctic-alpine species occur here, including alpine cinquefoil Potentilla crantzii, alpine meadow grass Poa alpina, black alpine sedge Carex atrata and alpine saxifrage Saxifraga nivalis at Helvellyn and Fairfield. Buttermere Fells is also a locality for the rare alpine catchfly Lychnis alpine. On Helton Fell, a bryophyte rich flush is present supporting species such as Bryum weigelii, Sphagnum contortum, Sphagnum warnstorfii, Rhizomnium pseudopunctatum, Moerckia hibernica, Leiocolea rutheana, Homalothecium nitens, Drepanocladus vernicosus, Cinclidium stygium and Jamesoniella undulifolia Siliceous scree communities are one of the most extensive habitats within the Lake District High Fells, covering large areas on moderately steep ground (always interspersed with other habitats) they are colonised by grasses, bryophytes and ferns. The screes provide a suitable microclimate for many oceanic moss and liverwort species such as Scapania ornithopiodes and Kiaeria starkei, which can be found in Helvellyn and Fairfield. On siliceous slopes of acid crags, extensive communities of silicicolous vegetation occurs - crevices and wet rock faces support a number of uncommon ferns including green spleenwort Asplenium viride, brittle bladder fern Cystopteris fragilis and Wilsonís filmy fern Hymenophyllum wilsonii. Woodlands: Old sessile oak woods with Ilex and Blechnum are a particular feature of the Lake District IPA and harbour rich bryophyte and lichen communities. Areas of bryophyte and fern-rich oak woodland are found on steep south-facing slopes near the altitudinal limit for oak in Cumbria. Notable bryophyte species include Breutelia chrysocoma, Saccogyna viticulosa and Pleurozia purpurea. Fragments of this habitat also occur elsewhere throughout the site, mostly in gills or other areas less accessible to grazing animals. Borrowdale woods complex, for example, has the most extensive block of western old sessile oak woods in northern England with a diverse range of stand types which contain some of the finest assemblages of mosses and liverworts in western Europe due to the mild moist climate. In addition, rare plants such as touch-me-not balsam Impatiens noli-tangere and alpine enchanterís-nightshade Circaea alpina, also have important British occurrences here. Amongst the oak stands there are small patches of bog woodland (birch Betula sp. on peat), ash Fraxinus excelsior woodland and alder Alnus glutinosa stands. The woods are especially rich in bryophytes (including Critically Endangered Homomallium incurvatum and lichens, and northern species occur, such as the moss Ptilium crista-castrensis. At Stonethwaite Woods (part of the Borrowdale Complex), the high rainfall, aspect and underlying rocks of the Borrowdale Volcanic Group result in the site supporting the best upland oak-hazel woodland in Borrowdale, as well as species-rich bryophyte flora. Both the northern and southern woods grade into open birch stands along their upper edges with occasional holly and yew, passing into a dry, heather Calluna vulgaris dominant heathland with bracken and areas of acid grassland. Parts of the woodland floor are thickly covered with boulder scree and support often well developed communities of common bryophytes such as Dicranum majus, Rhytidiadelphus loreus and Polytrichum formosum. The southerly aspect tends to be too exposed and dry for the rarer ĎAtlanticí species of moss and liverwort. At Johnny Wood (part of the Borrowdale Complex), a well developed sessile oak woodland has developed on the acidic soils. The woodland exhibits varieties of structure: from stands of tall, widely-spaced trees; to development from abandoned coppice; to dense stands of thin poles. Ash and hazel occur with oak over the small areas of base-enriched soil, where there is also sparse wych elm and bird cherry. The floor is covered with boulders on which there are growths of mosses and liverworts. This Ďoceanicí bryophyte flora is richest on the more humid north-east facing slopes and is dependent on the combination of high rainfall, rocky ground and continuous tree cover. Bare species include Sematophyllum micans, one of the rarest British oceanic mosses, is perhaps at its most abundant in this wood. High rainfall has probably inhibited development of an outstanding lichen assemblage, however there is an interesting lichen community co-dominated by Parmelia laevigata and P. taylorensis. At Lodore Troutdale (the largest unit within the Borrowdale Woods complex), small areas of alder woodland and willow along the banks of the River Derwent have formed which are notable for their rich moss flora. In all some 213 species of bryophyte have been recorded here, this being extremely high compared to other woodlands in the British Isles (Averis 2002). Of particular interest here are the numbers of oceanic species, which have strongly western distributions in Europe (Ratcliffe 1968). The area around Lodore Fells is of interest, with Radula voluta, R. aquilegia, Harpalejeunea ovata and Drepanojeunea hamatifolia. Lichens of interest include Anaptychia obscurata in its only known locality in northern England. The site includes a number of interesting non-wooded habitats. Species-rich flushes contain yellow saxifrage Saxifraga aizoides, grass-of-Parnassus Parnassia palustris, lesser clubmoss Selaginella selaginoides, marsh arrowgrass Triglochin palustris and fragrant orchid Gymnadenia conopsea var. densiflora. There are also areas of unimproved grassland, heath and bracken with scattered birch. At Great Wood (which is noted for its fine stands of ash and wych elm woodland which occur on base-rich soils; and for alder woodland in wetter areas), at least one hundred lichen species have been recorded, making it the third richest known locality for lichens in northern England. Arboreal lichens and especially large foliose species are particularly well represented. Three Lobaria species occur in an abundance unparalleled in northern England, and there are many other rare species such as Arthopyrenia cinereo-pruinosa Low Stile Wood/Seatoller is known to be the finest of all woodland sites in northern England for its lichen flora and the bryophyte species recorded from the wood are also outstanding. The very restricted ground flora and sparse shrub layer however reflect the impact of prolonged grazing although alpine enchanterís-nightshade Circaea alpina, and the uncommon Wilsonís filmy fern Hymenophyllum wilsonii which is present on damp shaded rocks do exist here. Good lichen assemblages occur under closed canopy woodland, but the important ancient woodland indicator lichen species are largely restricted to the areas of well-lit and more scattered trees near Seathwaite Bridge and the Borrowdale yews. The lichen assemblages also vary with woodland type; the ash-oak-hazel stands being characterised by a Lobarion pulmonariae community which is particularly well developed on the ash pollards of the lower slopes, while a Parmelion laevigatae community is typical of the more acid oak-birch areas and becomes dominant above 150 m OD. The total of 182 lichen species recorded includes many rarities such as Bacidia isidiacea and B. affinis, which are restricted in Britain to only a few ancient woodland localities; Arthothelium orbilliferum, Sticta canariensis, and Leptogium burgessii, for which this is the only English record; Lopadium pezizoideum for which there is on other English record; and many other species which are scarce in northern England but occur in great abundance in Seatoller Wood. The bryophyte flora contains numerous rare Ďoceanicí species including Radula voluta and Adelanthus decipiens, which have only two other English localities; and Jamesoniella autumnalis, Hylocomium umbratum and Leucobryum juniperoideum. Within Gowbarrow Park there are some of the finest stands of alder and wych-elm woodland in the whole of West Cumbria, grading into more open areas of unimproved acidic marshy grassland, acid flushes, bracken, heathland and parkland. Gowbarrow Park hosts outstanding lichen flora, which includes a large number of rare and local species. The woodland has characteristics of primary relic woodland of a type once much more extensive on relatively base-rich slopes in the Lake District. The fine alder stands range from peaty carr below the springline through closed canopy woodland into open stands of widely spaced trees, some of which are coppiced. The ash-wych elm stands occur along water courses and on the rocky bluffs, especially where these are rich in nutrients. Ash and elm have achieved great size, as has small-leaved lime Tilia cordata, which occurs in association with hazel Corylus avellana, bird cherry Prunus padus, yew Taxus baccata and sessile oak Quercus petraea. The presence of spindle Euonymus europaeus is noteworthy for, like small-leaved lime, it is growing here at the northern limit of its range. At Side Wood, a large number of bryophytes have been recorded (see Averis 2001 for more info) including Breutelia chrysocoma, Campylopus atrovirens, Dicranum scottianum and Hyocomium armoricum, Ptilium crista-castrensis and the liverworts Anastrepta orcadensis, Bazzania tricrenata, Gymnomitrion crenulatum, Harpanthus scutatus, Harpalejeunea molleri, Herbertus aduncus, Plagiochilla exigua, Lejeunea lamacerina, Lejeunea patens, Lepidozia pearsonii, Plagiochila exigua, Plagiochilla killarniensis, Plagiochilla punctata, Plagiochilla spinulosa, Saccogyna viticulosa, Scapania gracilis and Tritomaria exsecta. At Ullswater there is a cluster of old sessile oak woods, sometimes in association with other woodland types of ashFraxinus excelsior and alder Alnus glutinosa. The woods show outstanding bryophyte assemblages (including northern species such as Ptilium crista-castrensis) Open water: The Lake District has areas of open water throughout throughout. Although the tarns are typically species-poor, many are important for their desmid diversity. Desmid diversity hotspots include; Kelly Hall Tarn (a small shallow lake about 1.5 m deep where over 70 species of desmid have been recorded including the potential UK Red Data List desmids: Cosmarium pseudoconnatum, C. retusiforme var. incrassatum, Desmidium aptogonum, Sphaerozosma vertebratum, Staurastrum laeve, S. manfeldtii, S. quadrangulare, S. spongiosum, S. striolatum), Long Moss tarn (which includes 5 potential UK Red Data List desmids; Cosmarium sportella, Groenbladia undulata var. perundulata, Hyalotheca mucosa, Haplotaeniumrectum, Staurodesmus bulnheimii, S. validus and over 70 species recorded overall), Long Moss (which lies in a small valley on Torver Back Common), Lily Tarn (near to Loughrigg Fell - the algal flora is dominated by the desmid genus Staurastrum). In addition, Three Dubs Tarn is particularly important for its rich wetland flora supporting a wide range of aquatic and wetland plants. These include four species of pondweed Potamogeton alpinus, P. berchtoldii, P. natans and P. polygonifolius, quill-wort Isoetes lacustris, lesser bladderwort Utricularia minor, floating bur-reed Sparganium angustifolium, small bur-reed S. minimum and lesser skullcap Scutellaria minor. At Little Langdale Tarn, the genus Euphrasia is well represented with 12 taxa occurring; Euphrasia arctica subsp. borealis, E. confusa, E. confusa x scottica, E. frigida, E. micrantha, E. nemorosa, E. nemorosa x confusa, E. nemorosa x scottica, E. officinalis agg., E. rivularis, E. rostkoviana subsp. rostkoviana, E. scottica. The genus Euphrasia in Britain comprises a taxonomically complex group; the components are self-compatible, morphologically similar, hemi-parasitic annual plants of which there are 20 hybrid micro-species of high conservation importance. Other: Coniston Copper Mines consist rocky outcrops, mine spoils and disused mine workings where Purvis and James reported 97 species of lichen existing on the mineralised deposits, most of which belong to the genera Acarospora, Aspicilia, Bacidia, Buellia, Cladina, Cladonia, Fuscidia, Lecanora, Porpidia, Rhizocarpon and Stereocarpon. Many species are characteristic of Acarosporetum sinopicae, although there is variation in species depending on different mineral substrate.

 General Habitat Description Inland Surface Water Mire, Bog & Fen Heathland Scrub & Tundra Woodland and Forest Constructed, Industrial & other habitat Inland unvegetated or sparsely vegetated

Land use

Land use% CoverLevel
agriculture (animals)Unknown
forestryUnknown
nature conservation and researchUnknown
water managementUnknown
tourism/recreationUnknown

Threatened Species

Species NameIPA Assess.Species Assess.AbundanceData qualityCriteria
Euphrasia virgusii Davey2007unknownunknownA(iii)
Jamesoniella undulifolia (Nees) K. Mull.2007unknownunknownA(i), A(ii)

Botanical Richness

EUNIS level 2 code & nameIPA Assess.Habitat Assess.% of indicator speciesNo. SpeciesNational BiotopeData qualityCriteria
C1 Surface standing waters200700unknownB
G1 Broadleaved deciduous woodland2012201200unknownB
H5 Miscellaneous inland habitats with very sparse or no vegetation2012201200unknownB

Threatened Habitats

IPA Habitat code & nameIPA Assess.Habitat Assess.AreaData qualityCriteria
4010 Northern Atlantic wet heaths with Erica tetralix20070unknownCii
4030 European dry heaths20070unknownCii
4060 Alpine and Boreal heaths20070unknownCii
5130 Juniperus communis formations on heaths or calcareous grasslands20070unknownCii
6150 Siliceous alpine and boreal grasslands20070unknownCii
6430 Hydrophilous tall herb fringe communities of plains and of the montane to alpine levels20070unknownCii
7130(*) Blanket bogs ( * if active bog)20070unknownCi
3130 Oligotrophic to mesotrophic standing waters witth vegetation of the Littorelletea uniflorae and/or Isoeto-Nanjuncet20070unknownCii
91A0 Old sessile oak woods with Ilex and Blechnum in British Isles20070unknownCii
8220 Siliceous rocky slopes with chasmophytic vegetation20070unknownCii
8110 Siliceous scree of the montane to snow levels (Androsacetalia alpinae and Galeopsetalia ladani)20070unknownCii

Protection

DesignationProtected Area NameRelationship with IPAOverlap with IPA
Site of Special Scientific InterestWhitbarrowprotected area overlaps with IPA1160
Site of Special Scientific InterestScout & Cunswick Scarsprotected area overlaps with IPA372
Site of Special Scientific InterestUnderlaid Woodprotected area overlaps with IPA94
Site of Special Scientific InterestMarble Quarry & Hale Fellprotected area overlaps with IPA43
Site of Special Scientific InterestGait Barrowsprotected area overlaps with IPA70
Site of Special Scientific InterestMiddlebarrowprotected area overlaps with IPA7
Site of Special Scientific InterestThrang End & Yealand Hall Allotmentprotected area overlaps with IPA37
Site of Special Scientific InterestCringlebarrow & Deepdaleprotected area overlaps with IPA50
Site of Special Scientific InterestFarleton Knottprotected area overlaps with IPA290
Site of Special Scientific InterestHutton Roaf Cragsprotected area overlaps with IPA395
Special Area of ConservationBorrowdale Woodland Complexprotected area overlaps with IPA670
Special Area of ConservationLake District High Fellsprotected area is adjacent to IPA92
Special Area of ConservationMorecombe Bayprotected area is adjacent to IPA1
Special Area of ConservationMorecombe Bay Pavementsprotected area overlaps with IPA2592
Special Area of ConservationNaddle Forestprotected area overlaps with IPA363
Special Area of ConservationRiver Derwent and Bassenthwaite Lakesprotected area is adjacent to IPA3
Special Area of ConservationRiver Edenprotected area is adjacent to IPA0
Special Area of ConservationUllswater Oakwoodsprotected area overlaps with IPA108
Special Area of ConservationWast Waterprotected area overlaps with IPA285
Special Area of ConservationYewbarrow Woodsprotected area overlaps with IPA114
Site of Special Scientific InterestArmboth Fellsprotected area is adjacent to IPA0
Site of Special Scientific InterestBowness Knotprotected area is adjacent to IPA0
Site of Special Scientific InterestBrothers Waterprotected area is adjacent to IPA0
Site of Special Scientific InterestButtermereprotected area is adjacent to IPA1
Site of Special Scientific InterestButtermere Fellsprotected area is adjacent to IPA1
Site of Special Scientific InterestClaife Tarns and Miresprotected area is adjacent to IPA1
Site of Special Scientific InterestConiston Mines and Quarriesprotected area overlaps with IPA127
Site of Special Scientific InterestCringlebarrow and Deep Daleprotected area overlaps with IPA50
Site of Special Scientific InterestDodgston Woodprotected area overlaps with IPA58
Site of Special Scientific InterestEaves Woodprotected area is adjacent to IPA0
Site of Special Scientific InterestEnnerdaleprotected area overlaps with IPA337
Site of Special Scientific InterestFarleton Knottprotected area overlaps with IPA291
Site of Special Scientific InterestGait Barrowsprotected area overlaps with IPA70
Site of Special Scientific InterestGlencoyne Woodprotected area overlaps with IPA31
Site of Special Scientific InterestGowbarrow Parkprotected area overlaps with IPA53
Site of Special Scientific InterestGreat Woodprotected area overlaps with IPA49
Site of Special Scientific InterestGreendale Miresprotected area is adjacent to IPA0
Site of Special Scientific InterestHawes Waterprotected area overlaps with IPA61
Site of Special Scientific InterestHumphrey Headprotected area overlaps with IPA28
Site of Special Scientific InterestHutton Roof Cragsprotected area overlaps with IPA397
Site of Special Scientific InterestJohnny Woodprotected area overlaps with IPA36
Site of Special Scientific InterestLodore Ė Troutdale Woodsprotected area overlaps with IPA367
Site of Special Scientific InterestLow Woodprotected area overlaps with IPA77
Site of Special Scientific InterestMarble Quarry and Hale Fellprotected area overlaps with IPA43
Site of Special Scientific InterestMiddlebarrowprotected area overlaps with IPA7
Site of Special Scientific InterestMilkingstead Woodprotected area overlaps with IPA13
Site of Special Scientific InterestMorcambe Bayprotected area is adjacent to IPA1
Site of Special Scientific InterestNaddle Forestprotected area overlaps with IPA363
Site of Special Scientific InterestPillar and Ennerdale Fellsprotected area overlaps with IPA92
Site of Special Scientific InterestRiver Derwent and Tributariesprotected area is adjacent to IPA2
Site of Special Scientific InterestRiver Eden and Tributariesprotected area is adjacent to IPA0
Site of Special Scientific InterestRosthwaite Fellprotected area is adjacent to IPA0
Site of Special Scientific InterestScales Woodprotected area overlaps with IPA54
Site of Special Scientific InterestScout and Cunswick Scarsprotected area overlaps with IPA373
Site of Special Scientific InterestSeatoller Wood, Sourmilk Gill and Seathwaite Graphprotected area overlaps with IPA61
Site of Special Scientific InterestStanley Ghyllprotected area overlaps with IPA8
Site of Special Scientific InterestStonethwaite Woodsprotected area overlaps with IPA101
Site of Special Scientific InterestThrang End and Yealand Hall Allotmentprotected area overlaps with IPA37
Site of Special Scientific InterestThrang Woodprotected area overlaps with IPA5
Site of Special Scientific InterestTrowbarrow Quarryprotected area is adjacent to IPA0
Site of Special Scientific InterestUnderlaid Woodprotected area overlaps with IPA95
Site of Special Scientific InterestWasdale Screesprotected area is adjacent to IPA0
Site of Special Scientific InterestWast Waterprotected area overlaps with IPA285
Site of Special Scientific InterestWhitbarrowprotected area overlaps with IPA1164
Site of Special Scientific InterestYewbarrow Woodsprotected area overlaps with IPA114
National Nature ReserveWhitbarrowprotected area overlaps with IPA572
National Nature ReserveHutton Roofprotected area overlaps with IPA114
National Nature ReserveGait Barrowsprotected area overlaps with IPA120
National Nature ReserveClawthorpe Fellsprotected area overlaps with IPA9
Local Nature ReserveTrowbarrow Quarryprotected area is adjacent to IPA0
Local Nature ReserveWhitbarrow Scarprotected area overlaps with IPA33
Area of Outstanding Natural BeautyArnside and Silverdaleprotected area is adjacent to IPA368
National ParkLake Districtprotected area contains IPA4051

Management

TypeDescriptionYear startedYear finishes
Habitat Management PlanBlanket Bog HAP2002
Habitat Management PlanLimestone pavement HAP2002
Habitat Management PlanLowland beech and yew woodland HAP2002
Habitat Management PlanLowland calcareous grassland HAP2002
Habitat Management PlanLowland dry acid grassland HAP2002
Habitat Management PlanLowland heathland HAP2002
Habitat Management PlanLowland mixed deciduous woodland HAP2002
Habitat Management PlanUpland calcareous grassland HAP2002
Habitat Management PlanUpland haymeadows HAP2002
Habitat Management PlanUpland heathland HAP2002
Habitat Management PlanUpland mixed ashwoods HAP2002
Habitat Management PlanUpland oakwood2002
Habitat Management PlanWet woodland HAP2002
Species Management PlanGrouped plan for eyebrights SAP2002
Species Management PlanJamesoniella undulifolia SAP2002
Species Management PlanJuniperus communis (Juniper) SAP2002

Threats

ThreatImportance
abandonment/reduction of land managementlow
agricultural intensification/expansion (grazing)medium
development (recreation/tourism)medium
eutrophicationmedium
extraction (peat)low
foresty (intensified forest management)medium
water (extraction/drainage/canalisation/managementlow
otherlow

 Conservation Issues Kerry Hall Tarn - a dam has been added to increase depth and volume with a sign saying the water is used for drinking water and so no swimming allowed. Long Moss - is marshy, silted and overgrown at the southern end, whilst the northern end, the outfall, is far clearer Three Dubs Tarn: was formed from three smaller natural tarns. It is dammed to the south-west with four becks flowing in from the north, south, east and west. These tarns have been the subject of detailed freshwater biological research by the Freshwater Biological Association. Three Dubs Tarn must be managed so that may continue to support rare and uncommon flora. It must not be exposed to wave action, or invasive species introduction. Recreational activities such as angling and boating must be controlled. Borrowdale: The area was intensively managed until about 150 years ago. Since then, the management has been neglected; the main threats to the woodlands are fragmentation, even-age structures, overgrazing preventing natural regeneration, planting of some areas with exotic conifers and high public pressure (Pankhurst, 2001). Great Wood: Under the current designation of SSSI status, management of the site will entail allowing the woods to develop naturally, with some controlled intervention (such as rhododendron clearance). Controlling grazing to a measured level will ensure botanical regeneration. To maintain habitats for some species it may be suitable to coppice some parts of the woods, and some pollarding may be necessary. Burning of any nature on this area is deemed inappropriate, and all dead wood should be left to rot so as to provide habitats for fungal species and invertebrates. Fransis Rose conducted extensive lichen surveys of some Lake District Woods in the 1970ís. There is now a real lack of published/accessible information on the current situation of the lichen status of these woods. BLS local contact: Roderick Corner, Hawthorn Hill, 36 Wordsworth Street, Penrith, Cumbria, CA11 7QZ. Low stile wood/seatoller: Management: Under the current designation of SSSI status, management of the site will entail allowing the woods to develop naturally, with some controlled intervention (such as rhododendron clearance). Controlling grazing to a measured level will ensure botanical regeneration. To maintain habitats for some species it may be suitable to coppice some parts of the woods, and some pollarding may be necessary. Burning of any nature on this area is deemed inappropriate, and all dead wood should be left to rot so as to provide habitats for fungal species and invertebrates. At Seathwaite, in the south of the valley 100 hectares will be ring-fenced and stock excluded from 60 hectares, allowing the regeneration of adjacent moribund woodland. (Pankhurst, 2001) Gowbarrow Park: Most upland woods were once managed as coppice, being cut on regular rotation for the oak bark and charcoal industries. However, most of this coppicing stopped in the nineteenth century. As a result the woods developed more importance as shelter for domestic stock and much upland woodland is now grazed high forest. The area is heavily grazed by livestock and deer, and ground flora and shrub layer would benefit from some managed reduction of grazing to allow recovery. In some areas, grazing may need to be removed altogether to allow natural regeneration of tree species. Temporary fencing and walls may help to manage stock control, although Natural England states that some grazing hold benefits for woodland birds. While reintroduction of coppicing may benefit butterfly conservation, it is understood that the best form of management for rich moss and lichen communities is to retain area of high forest. Trees with important lichen communities need to be managed appropriately and not coppiced or felled. It may be necessary to create new pollards in the future. Management should allow the development of some over mature and veteran trees in the future. Intervention may be required to combat the effects of invasive non-native plants. Rhododendron, in particular, is a major threat to many upland oakwoods, smothering the ground flora and inhibiting the natural regeneration of tree species. It should be removed wherever practical. In other cases, all or part of a wood can be left to develop naturally without any active management. Dead wood should be retained where present, providing that it is safe to do so. Native woodland should be allowed to naturally expand, although it is important that this is in balance with other upland habitat which has its own nature conservation importance.

Contact Information

ContactContact Type
Sally EatonSite report compiler
Cath ShellswellSite report compiler